AbstractThis Article begins by providing a theoretical framework for examining the specific ways in which Egypt under Sadat and Mubarak experienced electoral authoritarianism. It then analyzes how election laws and the electoral system were changed after the mass uprisings of January 2011 to liberalize Egypt’s political system. Finally, it focuses on the Sisi era to demonstrate the specific ways election laws have been manipulated to produce a military electoral authoritarian state. Despite the elimination of the dominant National Democratic Party (NDP) from political life, the executive in Egypt continues to control the political system. But now, the military is overtly at the helm of the ruling elite.
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